Various types of the Prayer

Javed Ahmad Ghamidi


The Friday Prayer


On Fridays, it has been made incumbent upon Muslims to pray in congregation at the time of zuhr prayer and in place of it. The way prescribed by the shari‘ah for this prayer is the following:

1. There are two rak‘at of this prayer.

2. In contrast with the zuhr prayer, the recital shall not be silent.

3. The takbir shall be said before the prayer.

4. Before the prayer, the imam shall deliver two sermons to remind and urge people about various teachings of Islam. He shall deliver these sermons while standing. The imam shall sit for a short while after he ends the first sermon and then stand up to deliver the second one.

5. The adhan for the prayer shall be recited when the imam reaches the place where he is to deliver the sermon.

As soon as the adhan is said, it is incumbent upon all Muslim men to leave all their involvements and come to the mosque if they have no legitimate excuse.

The sermon shall be delivered and the prayer shall be led by the rulers of the Muslims and this prayer shall only be offered at places which have been specified by them or where a representative of theirs is present to lead the prayer.

The Qur’an has mentioned this prayer in the following words:


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِي لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ  فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَاةُ فَانتَشِرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (62: 9-10)


Believers, when you are summoned to Friday prayers, hasten to the remembrance of God and cease your trading. That would be best for you, if you but knew it. Then, when the prayers end, disperse and go your ways in quest of God’s bounty. Remember God greatly so that you may prosper. (62:9-10)


The Prophet (sws) has directed those who lead the prayer to shorten the sermon and prolong the prayer. He has said that it is enough for a person to be sensible if he has this trait.[1]

It is evident from certain narratives that for reminding and counseling people and for the purpose of collective worship, it was this day that had in reality been fixed in the religions of the Prophets.[2] According to historians, before the advent of Muhammad (sws), Ka‘b Ibn Luyy or Qusayy Ibn Kalab would also assemble the people of Quraysh on this day.[3] Regarding the selection of this day, the Prophet (sws) has said that it was on this day that Adam was created and on this day was he cast into the orchard and on this day was he cast out and the Day of Judgement will also be a Friday.[4]

The Prophet (sws) is also reported to have said that there comes a time in this day in which the Almighty grants a rightful wish of a believer.[5] Consequently, he warned people that if they do not come for the Friday prayer, their hearts shall be sealed and indifference shall overcome them.[6] On the other hand, the Prophet (sws) has given glad tidings to people – who take a bath, fully cleanse themselves, are befittingly adorned and attired, try not to pierce and sit between two people, pray whatever they can at the beckoning of the Almighty and sit silently to listen to the sermon of the imam – glad tidings that the Almighty will forgive the sins they have committed between the two Fridays.[7] He has also said that on Friday, angels stand at the door of the mosques and write the names of people in order of their entry to the mosques. Consequently, those who come very early are similar to a person who has sent a camel for sacrifice, then he who sends a cow for this purpose and then he who sends a sheep for this purpose and then a hen and then an egg. Then once when the imam comes to deliver his sermon they fold their scrolls and listen to his advice and counsel.[8]


The Id Prayers


On the days of ‘id al-adha and ‘id al-fitr, it is essential for the Muslims that they arrange a collective prayer like that of the Friday prayer. Following is its methodology:

1. This prayer shall consist of two rak‘at.

2. In both rak‘at, the Qur’an shall be recited loudly.

3. While standing in qiyam some additional takbirs shall be recited.[9]

4. Neither will there be any adhan for the prayer nor takbir.

5. After the prayer, the imam shall deliver two sermons to remind and urge people regarding the basic message of Islam. Both these sermons shall be delivered with the imam standing. He shall sit for a while in between the two.

6. Like the Friday prayer, this prayer too shall be led and its sermon delivered by the rulers of the Muslims and their representatives and it shall be offered only at those places which have been prescribed by them, where either they or their representatives are present to lead the prayer.[10]



The Funeral Prayer


In the religion of the prophets, the prayer for a deceased is held obligatory.[11]

Once the dead body of the deceased is bathed and enshrouded, this prayer shall be offered in the following manner:

People shall stand in rows behind the imam after placing the dead body between themselves and the qiblah.

The prayer shall begin by saying the takbir and by raising hands.

Like the ‘id prayer, some additional takbirs shall be said in this prayer.[12]

The prayer shall end after the salam is said while a person is standing once the takbirs and the supplications have been offered.

The above method of the funeral prayer is attested by the consensus of the Muslims and their perpetual adherence to it. Narratives which depict the knowledge and practice of the Prophet (sws) in this matter are detailed out below:

Abu Hurayrah (rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): “You should show haste in taking away the dead body [to its destination] because if the deceased is pious, some good awaits him towards which you send him, and if this is not so then he is an anathema from which you should relieve your necks from”.[13]

Abu Sa‘id (rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): “When you see a funeral procession, stand up, and those walking in it should not sit down also until it is placed on ground”.[14]

Abu Hurayrah (rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): “A person who walks in the funeral procession of a Muslim while professing full faith in the Almighty and with a feeling of accountability [to Him], then remains there till the funeral prayer is offered and the deceased is buried, he returns with two carats worth of reward with each carat being [as big as] the mountain of Uhud. And he who offers the funeral prayer, but comes back before the burial, he too returns with one carat from them’.[15]

Abu Hurayrah (rta) narrates that the day Negus died, the Prophet (sws) had it announced, then reached the place of the prayer with the people, made rows [for the prayer] and said four takbirs in the prayer.[16]

Ibn Abi Laylah narrates that Zayd Ibn Arqam usually said four takbirs in our funeral prayers. In one funeral, he said five takbirs. When we asked him, he replied: “The Prophet (sws) too used to do this at some instances”.[17]

It is narrated by Talhah Ibn ‘Abdullah: “I prayed behind Ibn ‘Abbas and he read Surah Fatihah in it and remarked: ‘I have recited [this out to you] so that you should know that this was the practice of the Prophet (sws)’.”[18]

‘A’ishah (rta) narrates that the Prophet (sws) said: “Do not speak ill of the dead because they have reached the place where their deeds led them to”.[19]

Abu Hurayrah (rta) narrates from the Prophet (sws): “When you offer the funeral prayer for someone, pray specifically for him”.[20]

The supplications of this prayer which are ascribed to the Prophet are the following:



اللهم اغفر له وارحمه واعف عنه وعافه وأكرم نزله ووسع مدخله واغسله بماء وثلج وبرد ونقه من الخطايا كما ينقى الثوب الأبيض من الدنس وأبدله دارا خيرا من داره وأهلا خيرا من أهله وزوجا خيرا من زوجه وقه فتنة القبر وعذاب النار


O Lord forgive him, have mercy on him, pardon him and [O Lord] grant him prosperity and be a good host to him. Broaden his grave and wash him with water and with snow and with hail. Cleanse him of his sins just as a white piece of cloth is cleansed from dirt. [O Lord!] Grant him a better house in place of his own house and a better family than his own family and a wife better than his own and protect him from the punishment of the grave and from the torment of the Fire.[21]



اللهم اغفر لحينا وميتنا وشاهدنا وغائبنا وصغيرنا وكبيرنا وذكرنا وأنثانا اللهم من أحييته منا فأحيه على الإسلام ومن توفيته منا فتوفه على الإيمان اللهم لا تحرمنا أجره ولا تضلنا بعده 


O Lord! Forgive our living and our dead, those [who are] present [here] and those who are not and forgive our young ones and old ones, our men and our women. Lord! Whoever you give life, give him life such that he [follows] Islam and whoever you give death, let him die on faith. Lord! Do not deprive us of the reward of this deceased person and do not lead us astray after him.[22]



اللهم إن فلان بن فلان في ذمتك وحبل جوارك فقه من فتنة القبر وعذاب النار وأنت أهل الوفاء والحمد اللهم فاغفر له وارحمه إنك أنت الغفور الرحيم


Lord! Such-and-such a person who is the son of such-and-such a person is in your refuge and in the covenant of your asylum. So, [O Lord!] protect him from the trial of the grave and the torment of the Fire. Only You are worthy of all praise and of the fulfillment of your promises. So, O God! Forgive him and have mercy on him. Indeed, you are Forgiving and Ever-Merciful.[23]



The Optional Prayer


The Qur’an (2:158) says: وَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَإِنَّ اللّهَ شَاكِرٌعَلِيمٌ (He who does a virtue of his own will God will accept it and is fully aware of it). Similarly, in 2:45, it has been said that in case of difficulty, help should be sought from the prayer and from perseverance: وَاسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ. Thus in the light of these verses, besides the obligatory prayer, Muslims also offer the optional prayer. The optional (nafl) prayers which the Prophet (sws) has offered or has urged people to offer are detailed out below:


i. Before the Prayer

Before the fajr prayer, the Prophet (sws) would generally offer two light rak‘at.[24]

Hafsah (rta) says that he would pray these rak‘at as soon as the time of fajr would begin[25]. ‘A’ishah (rta) says that she never saw him more punctual than in offering these rak‘at.[26] She has also narrated from the Prophet (sws): “Thes rak‘at of fajr are better than this world and everything it has”.[27]

Before the zuhr prayer, he would sometimes pray two rak‘at and sometimes four.[28]

Before the maghrib prayer, the Prophet (sws) himself, in all probability, never offered any rak‘at, but he urged others to offer them if God provides them with the will and opportunity.[29] Consequently, it has been narrated that in his lifetime, the Companions (rta) would be vigilant in offering these rak‘at.[30]


ii. After the Prayer

The Prophet’s routine was to offer two rak‘at at home once he returned from the mosque after praying zuhr, maghrib and ‘isha.[31] He followed a similar routine after the Friday prayer.[32] A narrative from Abu Hurayrah says that the Prophet (sws) asked people to pray four rak‘at also after the Friday prayer.[33] Similarly, there are narratives which depict the blessings of praying four rak‘at after the zuhr prayer.[34]

Of the rak‘at which are offered before and after prayers, the Prophet (sws) is reported to have said that those who adhere to offering two rak‘at of fajr, six of zuhr, two each of maghrib and ‘isha, the Almighty will make for them a house in Paradise.[35]

In mid-morning (chasht) too, the Prophet (sws) urged people to offer two rak‘at [36]. He has said: “As soon as morning comes, charity becomes obligatory upon each of your joints. If a person wants to do it [then he should know that] every word of tasbih is charity, every takbir is charity, urging others to do a pious deed is charity, stopping others from bad deeds is charity and if two rak‘at are offered in mid-morning, then they suffice for all these”.[37]

However, one cannot be certain whether the Prophet (sws) offered this prayer since the narratives in this regard are contradictory.


iii. At the time of Eclipse

When once in the time of the Prophet (sws), a solar eclipse occurred, he led the believers in offering two rak‘at. It is narrated that in this prayer, he recited the Qur’an loudly, did very long ruku‘s and prostrations and while in the qiyam also celebrated the praises of the Lord, glorified Him and beseeched and implored Him. He even repeated the ruku‘ and the qiyam more than once while waiting for the eclipse to disappear. Then after finishing the prayer remarked: “The sun and the moon are two signs of the Almighty. Solar and Lunar eclipses do not occur because of the life or death of someone; in fact, the Almighty warns His people through such phenomena. So, when you see them, implore the Almighty, celebrate his sovereignty, offer the prayer and spend in His way”.[38]


iv. To ask for Rain

Narratives mention that the Prophet (sws) offered two rak‘at to beseech the Almighty to send rain. In religious parlance, this prayer is called istisqa. These narratives say that the words of the prayer were recited out loud and before the prayer, the Prophet (sws) supplicated before the Almighty by raising his hands for a long time while facing the qiblah.[39] One of the supplications uttered by him on such occasions is:


اللهم اسقنا غيثا مغيثا مريئا مريعا نافعا غير ضار عاجلا غير آجل


O Lord drench us with rain that answers our calls; whose consequences are good, which makes things cheeper, which is beneficial and not harmful and which comes soon and not late.[40]


v. In the Solitude of Night

Besides the five prayers during the day and night times, there was another prayer which was obligatory for the Prophet (sws). It is called “the night prayer” or the tahajjud prayer. In the seventy ninth verse of Surah Bani Isra’il, this obligatory nature of the prayer for the Prophet (sws) is mentioned by the words نَافِلَةً لَكَ. Then in Surah Muzzammil it is further stated that when the Prophet (sws) was asked to deliver open warning to his people, he was specially directed to be diligent in this prayer. The Qur’an says:


يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُزَّمِّلُ  قُمِ اللَّيْلَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا  نِصْفَهُ أَوِ انقُصْ مِنْهُ قَلِيلًا  أَوْ زِدْ عَلَيْهِ وَرَتِّلِ الْقُرْآنَ تَرْتِيلًا  إِنَّا سَنُلْقِي عَلَيْكَ قَوْلًا ثَقِيلًا  إِنَّ نَاشِئَةَ اللَّيْلِ هِيَ أَشَدُّ وَطْءًا وَأَقْوَمُ قِيلًا  إِنَّ لَكَ فِي اَلنَّهَارِ سَبْحًا طَوِيلًا  وَاذْكُرِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ وَتَبَتَّلْ إِلَيْهِ تَبْتِيلًا (73: 1-8)


O you enfolded in your shawl! stand [in prayer] by night, but not all night. Half the night, or even less or a little more and [in this prayer of yours] recite the Qur’an in a slow measured tone. Because soon We shall lay on you the burden of a heavy word [the burden of open warning]. Verily, this rising by night is very suitable for the mind’s peace and the heart’s resolve and for the speech’s correctness. Because during the daytime you will be hard-pressed with [this task; so pray at this time], and remember the name of your Lord, and [in this loneliness of the night] devote yourself entirely to Him. (73:1-8)


For common Muslims, this is an optional prayer and it is a great blessing for them if in following the Prophet (sws) they offer this prayer. It has been narrated that he would at most offer eleven rak‘at in this prayer and would stand, kneel and prostrate for great lengths of time in it. Indeed some narratives do mention thirteen rak‘at but two of them are the optional rak‘at. Since the tahajjud prayer was obligatory on the Prophet (sws), he prayed two optional rak‘at before them much like the optional rak‘at Muslims pray before or after the obligatory part of their prayer. This status of the optional rak‘at was not properly understood by people and they counted it among the rak‘at of the tahajjud prayer.[41] In this regard, the narrative which holds primary importance is the following:


عن أبي سلمة بن عبد الرحمن أنه   سأل عائشة رضي الله عنها كيف كانت صلاة رسول الله في رمضان فقالت ما كان يزيد في رمضان ولا في غيره على إحدى عشرة ركعة


Abu Salamah, the son of ‘Abd al-Rahman narrated that he asked from ‘A’ishah: “Describe the Prophet’s prayer in the Ramadan?” She replied: “Never did the Prophet pray more than eleven rak‘at either in ramadan or in any other month”.[42]


As per the verbal or practical corroboration of the Prophet (sws), the various ways in which this prayer was offered are the following:

1. After offering two rak‘at, the prayer should be ended with the salam and then one more rak‘at should be offered as witr.[43]

2. After praying two, four or six rak‘at in groups of two rak‘at the prayer should be ended with the salam, and then five rak‘at should be offered in a manner that one does qa‘dah in the last rak‘at only.[44]

3. After praying four rak‘at or eight rak‘at in groups of four rak‘at, three rak‘at should be offered in a manner that one does qa‘dah only in the last rak‘at.[45]

4. After praying two, four, six or eight rak‘at in groups of two without the qa‘dah, which should be done in the last rak‘at, one rak‘at should be offered standing up after the qa‘dah without saying the salam and then after the qa‘dah the salam should be said.[46]

It is evident from the narratives that initially in this prayer, the Qur’an was at times recited loudly and at times silently. Later, the Almighty directed the Prophet (sws) to recite it in a medium pitch:


وَلاَ تَجْهَرْ بِصَلاَتِكَ وَلاَ تُخَافِتْ بِهَا وَابْتَغِ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ سَبِيلاً (110:17)

And pray neither with too loud a voice nor in a soft one, but, between these extremes, seek a middle course. (17:110)


Consequently, the Prophet (sws) also directed his Companions (rta) to recite in this way. Abu Qatadah narrates that the Prophet told Abu Bakr (rta): “When I passed by you, you were reciting the Qur’an in a low pitch [in the night prayer]”. He replied: “I recite it to Him Who hears [even my] whispers”. The Prophet continued: “Raise your pitch a little”. Then he told ‘Umar (rta): “When I passed by you, you were reciting the Qur’an in a very loud pitch”. He replied: “I awake those who sleep, and make Satan run away”. The Prophet said: “Lower your pitch a little”.[47]

It is evident from Surah Bani Isra’il and Surah Muzzammil, the real time of this prayer is when one gets up at night, and for this reason it is called tahajjud. The Qur’an says that this is the time when one is in the presence of the Almighty. The Prophet (sws) has said: “Every night, the Almighty directs His attention upon our world. When one-third night remains, He says: ‘Who is there at this moment to call me so that I can respond to his call; who is it that can ask from Me so that I give him; who is it that seeks mercy that I forgive him’ ”.[48]

However, if a person is not able to reap the blessings of this prayer, he can offer this prayer before going to sleep. This inference is also evident from the verses of Surah Muzzammil which mention a reduction of the amount of the prayer in the following words:


إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ تَقُومُ أَدْنَى مِن ثُلُثَيِ اللَّيْلِ وَنِصْفَهُ وَثُلُثَهُ وَطَائِفَةٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ مَعَكَ وَاللَّهُ يُقَدِّرُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ عَلِمَ أَن لَّن تُحْصُوهُ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاقْرَؤُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ عَلِمَ أَن سَيَكُونُ مِنكُم مَّرْضَى وَآخَرُونَ يَضْرِبُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ يَبْتَغُونَ مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَآخَرُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَاقْرَؤُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنْهُ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَقْرِضُوا اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا لِأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللَّهِ هُوَ خَيْرًا وَأَعْظَمَ أَجْرًا وَاسْتَغْفِرُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ (73: 20)


[O Prophet! We had enjoined upon you to stand by night]. Your Lord, indeed, knows that sometimes you stand two thirds of the night and sometimes half and sometimes one third of it, and so does a group among your followers. And Allah alone [keeping in regard the need of people] appoints the day and night in due measure. He knew that you would not be able to follow this [routine]. So He turned towards you mercifully. Recite then from this Qur’an [in this prayer] as much as you are able to. He knows that there are among you who will be sick and others who will be travelling to seek the bounty of Allah and others who will be fighting for the cause of Allah; so, recite then from this as much as is possible for you. (73:20)


The Prophet (sws) is reported to have said:


أيكم خاف أن لا يقوم من آخر الليل فليوتر ثم ليرقد ومن وثق بقيام من الليل فليوتر من آخره فإن قراءة آخر الليل محضورة وذلك أفضل 


Whoever among you fears that he would not be able to get up in the last part of the night, he should offer the witr; but he who is certain that he would be able to get up, he should offer this prayer in the last part of the night because the recital [of the Qur’an] at that time is in the presence of the Almighty and it is this which is more blessed.[49]


The Prophet (sws) always offered this prayer alone. However, once in a ramadan when he got up and came out from his retiring enclosure into the mosque and offered this prayer within the mosque, Muslims started to gather with the desire to pray behind him. When the Prophet (sws) saw this, he discontinued offering this prayer fearing that this prayer might also become obligatory for the Muslims. ‘Urwah Ibn Zubayr narrates:


أن عائشة رضي الله عنها أخبرته   أن رسول الله خرج ليلة من جوف الليل فصلى في المسجد وصلى رجال بصلاته فأصبح الناس فتحدثوا فاجتمع أكثر منهم فصلى فصلوا معه فأصبح الناس فتحدثوا فكثر أهل المسجد من الليلة الثالثة فخرج رسول الله فصلى فصلوا بصلاته فلما كانت الليلة الرابعة عجز المسجد عن أهله حتى خرج لصلاة الصبح فلما قضى الفجر أقبل على الناس فتشهد ثم قال أما بعد فإنه لم يخف علي مكانكم ولكني خشيت أن تفرض عليكم فتعجزوا عنها


‘A’ishah informed him that the Prophet came out at midnight and offered the prayer in the mosque. Some people also prayed behind him there. When in the morning, these people mentioned [this incident], more people gathered the next day. In this night also, when he prayed in the mosque, people prayed behind him. When again in the morning people mentioned this, the third night a large number gathered at the mosque. In this night too, the Prophet came out and people prayed behind him. In the fourth night, the mosque was packed to capacity with people, but in that night he did not come out until it was fajr time. Then he turned to the people and bore witness to the oneness of the Almighty and said: “I was not unaware of your presence; I only feared that it might be made obligatory upon you and then you would not be able to offer it”.[50]


Until the time of ‘Umar’s (rta) rule, people generally offered this prayer alone at their homes or in the mosques when one day he came to the mosque of the Prophet (sws), and saw that people were praying in different groups such that some of them were reciting individually and others behind an imam. Since in this prayer the recital is loud, there was a state of indiscipline in the mosque. ‘Umar (rta) deeming this to be a show disrespect to the Qur’an, appointed Ubayy Ibn Ka‘b (rta) as the overall imam of the prayer. After this, when another night he happened to chance by and saw the people praying thus, he remarked: “This new thing is good, but that which they leave because of sleep is better than this”.[51]

It is evident from this narrative that not only did ‘Umar (rta) not join the congregational tahajjud prayer, but opined that if this prayer is offered at its actual time, then it earns more blessings than if it is offered before going to sleep.

The Prophet (sws), as is mentioned earlier, never offered more that eleven rak‘at for this prayer. However, since the number of rak‘at of this prayer is not fixed, when one imam was appointed to lead the people, they started to pray twenty three rak‘at in ramadan and called it tarawih. Ever since that time, Muslims have generally been offering the tarawih prayer in this manner and most of them are unaware of the fact that it is in fact the tahajjud prayer which they are offering with the ‘isha prayer.

Besides these optional prayers, the Prophet (sws) has regarded two rak‘at after wudu and adhan as a means of earning great blessing and reward.[52] Narratives also mention that he would offer two rak‘at after returning from a journey.[53] The Prophet (sws) has also asked Muslims to offer two rak‘at and pray to the Almighty for forgiveness of sins and for istikharah.[54] This supplication of istikharah is as follows:


اللهم إني أستخيرك بعلمك وأستقدرك بقدرتك وأسألك من فضلك العظيم فإنك تقدر ولا أقدر وتعلم ولا أعلم وأنت علام الغيوب اللهم إن كنت تعلم أن هذا الأمر خير لي في ديني ومعاشي وعاقبة أمري أو قال في عاجل أمري وآجله فاقدره لي وإن كنت تعلم أن هذا الأمر شر لي في ديني ومعاشي وعاقبة أمري أو قال في عاجل أمري وآجله فاصرفه عني واصرفني عنه واقدر لي الخير حيث كان ثم رضني به

O Allah! I seek goodness through Your Knowledge and through Your Might I seek strength, and I beg from You Your great blessings, because You have the might and I do not have the might. You know everything and I do not know, and You have knowledge of the unseen. Oh Allah! If in Your Knowledge this action [which I intend to do] is better with regard to my religion, my life and my fate then destine it for me and make it easy for me and then add blessings to it for me. O Allah! In Your knowledge if this action is bad for me, for my religion and for my fate, then turn it away from me and [O Allah!] whatever is better for me, ordain that for me wherever it is, and then make me satisfied with it.[55]







[1]. Muslim, No: 869.

[2]. Muslim, No: 855.

[3]. Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-‘Arab, vol. 8 (Beirut: Dar Sadir, n.d.), 58.

[4]. Muslim, No: 854.

[5]. Bukhari, No: 893 / Muslim, No: 852.

[6]. Muslim, No: 865.

[7]. Bukhari, No: 843.

[8]. Bukhari, No: 887 / Muslim, No: 944.

[9]. The number of these takbirs has not been fixed. Muslims, keeping in view their convenience can say as many of these as they can before or after the Qur’an is recited. They can also raise their hands at each of these takbirs. It is evident from various narratives that at times, the Prophet (sws) said seven takbirs in the first rak‘at and the five in the second and at times said four takbirs in both rak‘at. (Abu Da’ud, Nos: 1149, 1153)

[10]. Umm ‘Atiyah narrates that regarding menstruating women, the Prophet (sws) said: “They should not pray, but should be part of the congregation and the supplications of the Muslims”. (Bukhari, No: 931)

[11]. This law relates to normal circumstances. If in some extra ordinary circumstances, the funeral prayer becomes difficult to offer, the deceased can be buried without it also. It is evident from various narratives that because of this very reason the Prophet (sws) directed that the martyrs of the battle of Uhud be buried without giving them a bath and without offering the funeral prayer and then after many years offered their funeral prayer at their graves.

[12]. The directives regarding these takbirs is the same as the one stated for the takbirs of ‘id.

[13]. Bukhari, No: 252; Muslim, No: 944.

[14]. Bukhari, No: 1248.

[15]. Muslim, Nos: 945, 946.

[16]. Bukhari, No: 1188; Muslim, No: 951.

[17]. Abu Da’ud, No: 3197.

[18]. Bukhari, No: 1275.

[19]. Bukhari, No: 1329.

[20]. Abu Da’ud, No: 3199.

[21]. Muslim, No: 963.

[22]. Ibn Majah, No: 1498.

[23]. Abu Da’ud, No: 3202.

[24]. Bukhari, Nos: 593, 594; Muslim, No: 723.

[25]. Muslim, No: 723.

[26]. Bukhari, No: 1116; Muslim, No: 724.

[27]. Muslim, No: 725.

[28]. Bukhari, No: 1119; Muslim, Nos: 729, 730.

[29]. Bukhari, No: 1128; Abu Da’ud, No: 1281.

[30]. Bukhari, No: 1129; Muslim, Nos: 836, 837.

[31]. Bukhari, No: 1119; Muslim, No: 730.

[32]. Bukhari, No: 895; Muslim, No: 882.

[33]. Muslim, No: 881.

[34]. Abu Da’ud, No: 1269.

[35]. Muslim, No: 728.

[36]. Bukhari, No: 1178; Muslim, No: 721.

[37]. Muslim, No: 720.

[38]. Bukhari, Nos: 997, 999, 1016; Muslim, No: 901.

[39]. Bukhari, Nos: 978, 979; Muslim, No: 894. Narratives also mention how the Prophet (sws) shifted his cloak from one shoulder to another, and people generally consider this to be a part of worship. However, no such thing can be regarded as part of worship unless the Prophet (sws) specifies it.

[40]. Abu Da’ud, No: 1169.

[41]. Bukhari, Nos: 947, 1087; Muslim, No: 763.

[42]. Bukhari, No: 1147.

[43]. Bukhari, No: 946, 950; Muslim, No: 479, 736.

[44]. Muslim, No: 737; Abu Da’ud, no: 1359.

[45]. Bukhari, No: 1096; Muslim, No: 738.

[46]. Muslim, No: 746; Nasa’i, No: 1710, 1714.

[47]. Abu Da’ud, No: 1329; Tirmadhi, No: 447.

[48]. The Qur’an (17:79); Bukhari, No: 1094; Muslim, No:758.

[49]. Muslim, No: 163.

[50]. Bukhari, No: 2512.

[51]. Bukhari, No: 1906.

[52]. Bukhari, No: 1098; Muslim, No: 2458; Musnad Ahmad, No: 8384.

[53]. Bukhari, No: 2921, 2922; Muslim, No: 716.

[54]. Abu Da’ud, No: 1521; Bukhari, No: 1109.

[55]. Bukhari, No: 1109.